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updated 11/19/2015 (in the future, change this to segue into group discussions about good ethical codes for intelligent driverless cars and intelligent chatbots (e.g. combination of Siri and Watson).
“I, Robot” – Ethical Quandaries of Robotics
Here are some
Robot RB-34 (“Herbie”)
Story has first known occurrence of term “robotics”
Poor Herbie has a manufacturing defect
(…ok, let’s allow some artistic license here)
What to do when telling the truth hurts a human?
So Herbie is always lying!
What could happen?
What should Herbie do?
In the story –
Herbie is told of the problem
He freezes up permanently
…seeing no way out
Time for a new robot
About here is a good time to break into groups and try to make a good ethical code for intelligent driverless cars or chatbots…
A code of ethics is
Rule(s) for ethical conduct
Code of ethics
A very short ethical code:
Is this code of ethics
. . .Deontologically based?
. . .Consequentialism based?
. . .Virtue ethics:
. . . . . .Character traits are key
. . . . . .Character traits make you ethical or not
. . . . . . . . .Aristotle, Confucius, Hume…
. . . . . .What character trait might work in this example?
. . .What might be a workable ethical code here
. . . . . .based on consequentialism?
Let’s analyze another example . . .
Here’s an important case . . .
The ACM Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct
Another important case . . .
The IEEE/ACM Software Engineering Code of Ethics
Search for it
Ad hominem arguments
Latin for “to the man”…
…instead of arguing the question,
you deflect attention to the opponent
you argue that 1+1=2
the other person responds “It’s 3, and anyway you flunked arithmetic in 3rd grade”
Is that argument strategy always illogical?
Is that illegal?
Could something be ethical but sleazy….
…or unethical but not sleazy?
Red herring arguments
Term supposedly coined by William Cobbett in 1807…
…to describe when he stopped dogs from chasing a rabbit…
…with a kippered herring
Lots of kinds of red herring arguments
two wrongs make a right arguments
See list at:
Slippery slope arguments
Claim that one step leads to next steps ending in something bad
Can you think of any examples?
Can it be valid?
Can it be misused?
Logical fallacies arguments
General category of many illogical arguments
…correlation = cause and effect arguments
Roosters crow and the sun rises
Therefore sunrise makes roosters crow
Therefore crowing causes sunrise
Non sequitur arguments
“not in sequence”
The conclusion is claimed to, but does not, follow the premise
“We realize that it would be in the best interest of the community and our children to address the issue expeditiously. In order to make this happen, I respectfully request an eight-month payment delay calling for payment of the $10 million obligation on August 31, 2015.”
(Savannah City Manager Stephanie Cutter in a letter to the city’s superintendent of schools; reported in the Savannah Morning News, April 3, 2014) – quoted in http://grammar.about.com/od/mo/g/nonseqterm.htm
Can you think of, find, or invent an example?
These happen alot in daily life and political speech
Post hoc arguments
Find out what it is
Give an example
Ad hoc arguments
Find out what it is
Give an example
Some notorious cases of plagiarism:
. . .Jonah Lehrer
. . .Kaavya Viswanathan
. . .Stephen Glass
. . . . . .(I liked the movie! “Shattered Glass“)
. . .Fareed Zakaria
. . . . . .A creative solution is proposed
. . . . . .Still in business (search to see)
. . .Popular musicians
. . . . . .- a popular term project topic in this class Etc.
. . .Let me tell what happened when I noticed a press release was plagiarized on the CBS news site
What is the problem with plagiarism?
. . .Who cares?
Copyright vs. plagiarism
. . .Copyright is a legal concept
. . .Plagiarism is not a legal concept
. . .There is no law against it!
. . .Purpose of copyright:
. . . . . .1. Encourage people to create IP
. . . . . .2. Maximize the IP’s value to society
Encouraging people to create IP
. . .Suppose you were the ruler of England in 1709
. . . . . .(Because that’s where the first copyright law began)
. . .How might you encourage IP creation?
Maximizing IP’s value to society
. . .How do copyright laws restrict society’s freedom to use copyrighted IP?
. . .Ok, so you’re the queen (well, parliament):
. . .What do you do now??
Statute of Anne
. . .The first copyright law
. . .Passed in 1710
. . .Gave authors rights for 14 years
. . . . . .They could renew for another term
. . .What happened when a work’s copyright expired?
. . . . . .it become unprotected, public property
. . .Note the balance of author and public rights
. . . . . .That’s the whole point!
. . . . . .Protect the author, to encourage creation of IP
. . . . . .Protect public right to reuse, to encourage use
. . . . . .“even in the 21st century is ‘frequently invoked by modern judges and academics as embodying the utilitarian underpinnings of copyright law'” – wikipedia, quoting I. Alexander, 2010, Copyright Law and the Public Interest in the Nineteenth Century, Hart Publishing, ISBN 978-1-84113-786-5.
. . . . . .What do you think of the Curtis Brown solution linked above (Zakaria case)?